In British Columbia, formal political parties didn’t emerge until the 1900s. But before that, loosely affiliated political factions provided some coherence to political decisions.

James Douglas was part black, married to an aboriginal woman and headed the honourable Hudson Bay Company which was the legal government in British Columbia. He was opposed by Amor De Cosmos who introduced the Chinese Head Tax to Parliament and was linked to labour organizations.

Political factions developed, called the Douglas Conservatives and the De Cosmos Reformers. This was the early development of political parties in British Columbia.


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Sam Sullivan is a Member of the Order of Canada, a former Mayor of Vancouver and Member of the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia.