Before the evolution of political parties in Vancouver, politicians organized themselves in loose political factions. These were related to earlier political factions that had already developed in Victoria.
In the 1970s, British Columbia cities adopted policies and processes to resist densification. As Mayor of Vancouver, Sam Sullivan started the EcoDensity Initiative to counter these.
The emphasis on technology and professionals arising out of the Second Wave of urban reform was not the panacea we had hoped for. Citizen groups pushed back against experts in Canada’s Third Wave of urban reform.
The Progressive Movement arose in the late 1800s in the US. It was a reaction against the corruption and incompetence that came out of earlier democratic reforms. Science, technology and professionals were revolutionizing life; people were hopeful about applying these to civic government.
The Municipal Reform Act of 1835 initiated by Earl Grey brought cities in the UK into the modern world. This reform wave hit Canada in the form of the Baldwin Act of 1849 which set the standard for all Canadian cities.
How was Metro Vancouver laid out? This video helps understand urban planning for Burnaby, Richmond, Surrey, Delta, Coquitlam, North Vancouver, Maple Ridge, Aldergrove, Abbotsford, etc.